The Canadian cow diet by: Dairy Farmers of Canada


The food we eat contributes to our overall health and a well-balanced diet will give you more of what you need. The same goes for dairy cows. So, what’s a nutritious meal for a dairy cow? Scientists have long studied the topic to help set dietary standards and to ensure our cows stay as healthy as possible. Let’s take a look at what Canadian cows have on their menu.


  • The most common food for cows is grass
  • A typical mature cow will eat approximately 29 kg of feed every day
  • Canadian dairy farmers work closely with nutritionists to find diets that work best for their specific cows

It’s been said that you are what you eat (there’s a small chance you pictured yourself as a sentient bowl of mac and cheese for a second—and if you didn’t before, you did now). The point is that we recognize the importance of consuming quality food. In order to provide us with pure, nutritious milk, our cows are fed a research-backed diet that optimizes both their health and milk production. Happy and healthy cows produce more (and better quality) milk!

What our cows are eating

Our dairy cows’ diet may vary according to the crops a farmer plants, which in turn depend on climate, soil type, and other considerations. In Canada, the most common food for cows is grass and it’s served up in two different ways: dry hay and silage. Our cows might also get important nutrients from crops such as corn, barley, clover, alfalfa hay, oats, and soybeans.

Did you know that cows eat the entire plant? Not just the grains or flowers, but the leaves and stalks too.

To top that off, our dairy farmers work closely with nutritionists who help formulate diets that work best for their specific cows. This includes choosing the right vitamin and mineral supplements to ensure all cows enjoy a well-balanced diet.

To ensure nutrient levels fit our dairy queens, cow feed is routinely tested. Additionally, our farmers manage feed distribution, so all cows get the nutrition they need, whether they’re dominant or subordinate herd members. All of this helps keep our cows well-fed and healthy.

In one day, a typical mature cow will eat approximately 29 kg of feed and wash that down with 80 to 180 L of water. She’ll spend several hours relaxing and ruminating – in other words chewing the food that’s returned to her mouth from her stomach for a second chewing. To each their own!

Grass vs. other plants

Most Canadian dairy farmers feed their cows a combination of grass and other plants, including grains, as mentioned above. However, there’s been growing consumer interest in grass-fed dairy for a variety of reasons, including its slightly higher omega-3 content and perceived cow welfare. But what is grass-fed dairy?

In Ontario, a temporary standard was implemented to define what it means for a cow to be considered “grass-fed”. To meet the standard, 75% of its feed must consist of any herbaceous plants that can be grazed or harvested, including grass, legumes, brassicas, tender shoots of shrubs and trees, and cereal grain crops in the vegetative state. Since then, other provinces have considered putting in place a grass-fed standard. Dairy Farmers of Canada has helped develop guidelines for a unified national standard, which remains an on-going process.

All this being said, animal health and wellness come first on any Canadian dairy farm. Nutritional balance is a must, as are proper farm management practices. At Dairy Farmers of Canada, we believe in looking at dairy farming holistically and in using the latest scientific research to make sure our cows are eating what’s good for them and for the environment year-round. Together, Canadian dairy farmers, cow nutritionists, and vets are keeping a close eye on our dairy superstars, so we can enjoy the natural goodness of Canadian milk.


Farm & Food Care Ontario. “Facts & Figures About Canadian Dairy Cows.”

National Farm Animal Care Council. “Code of Practice for the care and handling of farm animals – Dairy Cattle.”

BC Dairy Association. “What do dairy cows eat?”

Dairy Farmers of Ontario. “Interim Grass fed milk Standard Protocol.”

Organic Council of Ontario. “Organic: More than just grassfed.”

Haspel, Tamar. “Is grass-fed beef really better for you, the animal and the planet?”