Milk Cost of Production Estimates

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Source: USDA

Annual milk cost of production estimates vary by State and the size of operation. These estimates are shown below. For national and regional annual milk cost of production estimates, please go to the commodity costs and returns section.

Milk cost of production estimates since 2021 are based on the 2021 USDA, Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS) data from milk producers, with subsequent updates based upon annual price changes. Estimates for 2016 through 2020 are based on the 2016 ARMS data from milk producers, 2010 through 2015 are based on the 2010 ARMS data from milk producers, and 2005 through 2009 are based on the 2005 ARMS data from milk producers. National monthly milk cost of production estimates are available for 2005–17.

Also see costs and returns estimates for organic milk.

Data Set Last Updated Next Update
Recent Milk Cost of Production Estimates-2021 Base
By State 5/1/2024 10/1/2024
By Size of operation 5/1/2024 10/1/2024
Historical Milk Cost of Production Estimates-2016 Base
By State 5/1/2023
By Size of operation 5/1/2023
Historical Milk Cost of Production Estimates-2010 Base
Annual: By State 10/2/2018
Monthly: National 2/8/2018
Annual: By Size of operation 10/2/2018
Historical Milk Cost of Production Estimates-2005 Base
Monthly: National 1/30/2012
Annual: By State 10/3/2011
Annual: By Size of operation 10/3/2011