Source: University of Missouri
- Less than 5 percent death loss.
- Sanitation, bedding and ventilation are extremely important for disease control.
- Attend calves from youngest to oldest.
- Feeding utensils.
- Use nipple pails or bottles to feed milk to calves until weaning.
- Maintain nipples in good repair, and monitor nipple orifice size.
- Wash and sanitize all utensils after each feeding.
- The newborn (1 to 10 days of age).
- Inject vitamin E and selenium to prevent white muscle disease.
- Inject vitamins A and D because calves are born with small reserves.
- The 1-month-old calf.
- Vaccinate with clostridium toxoid/bacterin to prevent overeating disease.
- Dehorn with electric dehorner.
- Remove extra teats.
- Maintain clean bedding and surroundings.
- Use insecticide ear tags, spray or dust.
- Record all procedures in records system.
- Observe daily for early recognition of disease problems.
- Record all incidences of disease problems.